Fatwa: # 41492
Category: Beliefs and Practices (Aq...
Country: Iceland
Date: 11th February 2019


Laws of a Dhimmi


Assalmu Alaykum,

Please brother outline the full rights of a Dhimmi ie a non-muslim in an Islamic state and what must they do. Are Jews allowed to practice homosexuality as a Dhimmi?



In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

You refer to two issues in your query:

1. Laws of a Dhimmi.

2. Are Jews allowed to practise homosexuality?

1. A Dhimmi is a term “referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection”.[1] The word literally means “protected person”, referring to the state’s obligation under Shariah to protect the individual’s life, property, and freedom of religion, in exchange for loyalty to the state and payment of the jizya tax, which complemented the Zakat, paid by the Muslims.[2] Dhimmis were exempt from certain duties assigned specifically to Muslims, but were otherwise equal under the laws of property, contract, and obligation.[3]

2. No, the principle in Shariah is that a Dhimmi has freedom of religion and they may follow what is permissible in his/her religion. However, homosexuality is not allowed even according to observant Jews (Jews who are adhering to their beliefs).[4]

Consider the following verses from the bible:

Leviticus (20:13)

“If a man lies with a male as one lies with a woman, the two of them have done an abhorrent thing; they shall be put to death—their bloodguilt is upon them.”

Leviticus (18:22)

“Do not lie with a male as one lies with a woman; it is an abhorrence.”

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Abdullah Syed Sajid

Student Darul Iftaa
Houston, TX, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.



 الموسوعة الفقهية الكويتية (7/ 120) [1]

الذِّمَّةُ فِي اللُّغَةِ: الأْمَانُ وَالْعَهْدُ، فَأَهْل الذِّمَّةِ أَهْل الْعَهْدِ، وَالذِّمِّيُّ: هُوَ الْمُعَاهَدُ (2). وَالْمُرَادُ بِأَهْل الذِّمَّةِ فِي اصْطِلاَحِ الْفُقَهَاءِ الذِّمِّيُّونَ، وَالذِّمِّيُّ نِسْبَةٌ إِلَى الذِّمَّةِ، أَيِ الْعَهْدِ مِنَ الإْمَامِ - أَوْ مِمَّنْ يَنُوبُ عَنْهُ - بِالأْمْنِ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ وَمَالِهِ نَظِيرَ الْتِزَامِهِ الْجِزْيَةَ وَنُفُوذَ أَحْكَامِ الإْسْلاَمِ (1).

وَتَحْصُل الذِّمَّةُ لأِهْل الْكِتَابِ وَمَنْ فِي حُكْمِهِمْ بِالْعَقْدِ أَوِ الْقَرَائِنِ أَوِ التَّبَعِيَّةِ، فَيَقَرُّونَ عَلَى كُفْرِهِمْ فِي مُقَابِل الْجِزْيَةِ، كَمَا سَيَأْتِي تَفْصِيلُهُ.


الموسوعة الفقهية الكويتية (7/ 127)

الْقَاعِدَةُ الْعَامَّةُ فِي حُقُوقِ أَهْل الذِّمَّةِ: أَنَّ لَهُمْ مَا لَنَا وَعَلَيْهِمْ مَا عَلَيْنَا، وَهَذِهِ الْقَاعِدَةُ جَرَتْ عَلَى لِسَانِ فُقَهَاءِ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ، وَتَدُل عَلَيْهَا عِبَارَاتُ فُقَهَاءِ الْمَالِكِيَّةِ، وَالشَّافِعِيَّةِ، وَالْحَنَابِلَةِ (3) . وَيُؤَيِّدُهَا بَعْضُ الآْثَارِ عَنِ السَّلَفِ، فَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ أَنَّهُ قَال: إِنَّمَا قَبِلُوا الْجِزْيَةَ لِتَكُونَ أَمْوَالُهُمْ كَأَمْوَالِنَا، وَدِمَاؤُهُمْ كَدِمَائِنَا

لَكِنَّ هَذِهِ الْقَاعِدَةَ غَيْرُ مُطَبَّقَةٍ عَلَى إِطْلاَقِهَا، فَالذِّمِّيُّونَ لَيْسُوا كَالْمُسْلِمِينَ فِي جَمِيعِ الْحُقُوقِ وَالْوَاجِبَاتِ، وَذَلِكَ بِسَبَبِ كُفْرِهِمْ وَعَدَمِ الْتِزَامِهِمْ أَحْكَامَ الإِْسْلاَمِ.


 الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (4/ 198) [2]

(وتوضع على كتابي) يدخل في اليهود السامرة لأنهم يدينون بشريعة موسى - عليه الصلاة والسلام -، وفي النصارى الفرنج والأرمن


الأصل للشيباني ط قطر (7/ 421)

فإن أبوا ذلك فادعوهم الى إعطاء الجزية. فإن فعلوا ذلك فاقبلوا منهم وكفوا عنهم


أحكام أهل الذمة (1/ 79)

فَأَجْمَعَ الْفُقَهَاءُ عَلَى أَنَّ الْجِزْيَةَ تُؤْخَذُ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَمِنَ المجوس


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhimmi#cite_note-Campo-1 [3]


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homosexuality_and_Judaism [4]



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